Chem Explorers

BaBr2: The Exothermic Acid-Base Reaction and Its Applications

Reaction of Hydrobromic Acid (HBr) and Barium Hydroxide (Ba(OH)2)

Chemical reactions are ubiquitous, occurring both in natural and human-made systems. They are responsible for a multitude of processes, from the reactions that sustain life within our bodies to the ones that fuel our vehicles.

One intriguing reaction, familiar to many, involves the interaction between hydrobromic acid (HBr) and barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)2). This article delves into the products, reaction type, equation balancing, titration, net ionic equation, conjugate pairs, intermolecular forces, enthalpy, buffer solutions, and reaction completeness.

Reactants and Products

The reaction between HBr and Ba(OH)2 yields two products: barium bromide (BaBr2) and water (H2O).

This reaction is classified as an acid-base neutralization reaction. When an acid and a base react, the acid donates a proton (hydrogen ion) to the base, resulting in the formation of water and a salt.

In this specific reaction, HBr (the acid) donates a proton to Ba(OH)2 (the base), leading to the production of BaBr2 (the salt) and H2O (the water).

Balancing the Equation

The balanced chemical equation for the reaction between HBr and Ba(OH)2 is as follows:

2HBr + Ba(OH)2 → BaBr2 + 2H2O

Balancing this equation involves employing Gaussian elimination. This method entails assigning coefficients to each element on both sides of the equation and then using algebraic operations to simplify it.

In this instance, two hydrobromic acid molecules and one barium hydroxide molecule are required to produce one barium bromide molecule and two water molecules.

Titration

Titration is a widely used technique to determine the concentration of a solution by reacting it with a solution of another substance (the titrant) with a known concentration.

In the titration of HBr and Ba(OH)2, an indicator can be employed to identify the endpoint of the reaction. An indicator is a substance that exhibits a color change when the pH of the solution changes.

In this specific case, phenolphthalein would be a suitable indicator since HBr and Ba(OH)2 are both strong acids and bases, respectively.

The endpoint of the reaction is marked by the solution changing from colorless to pink, indicating that all the acid and base have reacted completely.

Net Ionic Equation

The net ionic equation for the reaction between HBr and Ba(OH)2 is as follows:

2H+ + 2Br + Ba2+ + 2OH → Ba2+ + 2Br + 2H2O

This equation represents only the species that actively participate in the reaction, excluding any spectator ions. Spectator ions do not take part in the reaction and appear unchanged on both sides of the equation.

In this particular case, Ba2+ and Br are spectator ions.

Conjugate Pairs

In an acid-base reaction, the acid and base form conjugate pairs. A conjugate base is the species remaining after the acid loses a proton, while a conjugate acid is the species formed when the base accepts a proton.

In the reaction between HBr and Ba(OH)2, HBr is the acid, and the conjugate base is Br. Ba(OH)2 is the base, and the conjugate acid is Ba2+.

Intermolecular Forces

Intermolecular forces are the interactions between molecules that hold them together in a liquid or solid state.

In the reaction between HBr and Ba(OH)2, there are dipole-dipole interactions and ionic nature.

Dipole-dipole interactions arise from the differences in electronegativity between the H and Br atoms in HBr, resulting in a partial negative charge on the Br atom. In Ba(OH)2, the hydroxide ions (OH) and barium ions (Ba2+) interact through ionic forces due to their charges.

Enthalpy

Enthalpy is the heat energy released or absorbed during a chemical reaction.

The reaction between HBr and Ba(OH)2 is exothermic since heat is released in the process. The enthalpy change of the reaction can be calculated using the bond energies of the reactants and products.

Buffer Solutions

A buffer solution is a solution that resists changes in pH even when an acid or base is added.

The reaction between HBr and Ba(OH)2 does not result in a buffer solution because both H2O and BaBr2 are neutral and do not possess the ability to act as a buffer.

Completeness of the Reaction

The reaction between HBr and Ba(OH)2 is considered complete, indicating that all the reactants have been consumed, and the products are formed entirely.

The completeness of the reaction is assessed by examining the amount of reactants consumed and the amount of products formed.

Properties of HBr and Ba(OH)2

HBr is a reducing agent, a catalyst, and a mineral acid with a pKa of -9.0. It is water-soluble and highly corrosive, causing severe burns upon contact with skin or eyes.

Ba(OH)2 is a strong base that dissociates completely in water to form hydroxide ions (OH). It has a molar mass of 171.34 g/mol and is also water-soluble.

When compared, HBr is a strong acid, and Ba(OH)2 is a strong base. Additionally, both HBr and Ba(OH)2 are highly soluble in water.

Conclusion

The reaction between HBr and Ba(OH)2 is an acid-base neutralization reaction that produces barium bromide and water. Gaussian elimination was used to balance the equation, and phenolphthalein was used to determine the endpoint of the titration.

The net ionic equation includes only the species that actively participate in the reaction, and the conjugate pairs involved are HBr and Br, and Ba(OH)2 and Ba2+. Dipole-dipole interactions and ionic nature are present in the reaction due to the differences in electronegativity and the charges of the particles.

The reaction is exothermic, but it does not result in a buffer solution. The completeness of the reaction is determined by observing the amount of reactants consumed and the amount of products formed.

Lastly, HBr is a reducing agent, a catalyst, and a mineral acid, while Ba(OH)2 is a strong base that dissociates completely in water.

Thermodynamics of the Reaction

The reaction between HBr and Ba(OH)2 is exothermic.

This is evident from the fact that heat is released during the reaction. The negative enthalpy of the reaction signifies that more energy is released than is absorbed during the reaction.

The amount of energy released during the reaction can be calculated using the enthalpy change formula. This reaction does not involve a redox reaction as no change in oxidation number occurs.

Instead, it is an acid-base neutralization reaction where the H+ ion combines with the OH ion to form water (H2O).

The reaction between HBr and Ba(OH)2 does involve precipitation since the products BaBr2 and H2O are not soluble in water. BaBr2 is a solid product that is formed from the reaction, as the completion of the reaction results in its precipitation.

The reaction between HBr and Ba(OH)2 is an irreversible reaction, meaning once the reaction is complete, the products cannot be converted back into their original reactants.

It should be noted that this reaction occurs readily under normal conditions and completes when the reactants are present in sufficient quantities. Reversibility of the reaction can be achieved if one of the products of the reaction is removed from the reaction mixture.

For example, if H2O is removed from the reaction mixture, the reaction would proceed forward as the products (BaBr2 and H2O) will no longer be in equilibrium conditions.

The reaction between HBr and Ba(OH)2 can be classified as a double displacement or metathesis reaction.

This is because the cations and anions of the reactants switch with each other to form new products. The positive hydrogen (H+) ion combines with the negatively charged OH ion to form water, and the Ba2+ ion combines with the negatively charged Br ion to form BaBr2.

Applications of BaBr2

BaBr2 has several applications in various fields.

One of the primary applications of BaBr2 is as a precursor in chemical synthesis.

BaBr2 can be used to prepare other chemicals such as bromides, sulfates, and carbonates. It is also used in the manufacturing of barium titanate, a piezoelectric material used in the electronics industry for its dielectric properties.

Another significant application of BaBr2 is in the purification of radioactive materials. BaBr2 is added to the solution containing radium to form BaRaBr, which is a less soluble compound.

The BaRaBr precipitates out of the solution, and can be easily separated by filtration, thus purifying the radium.

Conclusion

Thermodynamics plays a significant role in the reaction between HBr and Ba(OH)2.

The reaction is exothermic and releases heat energy, signifying that it is an exothermic reaction. The reaction also involves precipitation, as the products formed are not soluble in water, and a metathesis process is used to form the products.

BaBr2 has several applications, one of which is its usage in the purification of radioactive materials. The readily available BaBr2, when combined with radium, forms a less soluble compound that can be easily removed from the solution, leading to the purification of the radioactive material.

It is also significant to note that BaBr2 is a precursor in chemical synthesis and can be used in the production of other chemicals.

This article explored the reaction between HBr and Ba(OH)2.

The reaction is an acid-base neutralization reaction that produces BaBr2 and H2O and is exothermic, irreversible, and involves precipitation.

BaBr2 has several applications, one of which is in the purification of radioactive materials.

It is also a precursor in chemical synthesis and can be used to prepare other chemicals.

Overall, understanding the thermodynamics and applications of BaBr2 is important for those in the chemical and industrial fields.

FAQs

  1. What is the reaction between HBr and Ba(OH)2?
  2. Is the reaction between HBr and Ba(OH)2 endothermic or exothermic?
  3. Is the reaction between HBr and Ba(OH)2 reversible?
  4. What is BaBr2 used for?
  5. Is BaBr2 soluble in water?

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