## Heat of Neutralization

### Definition

Heat of neutralization, also known as enthalpy of neutralization, is a term used to describe the heat change that occurs during a neutralization reaction between an aqueous acid and aqueous base resulting in the formation of a salt and water. The value of enthalpy depends on the amount of reactants and the specific conditions under which the reaction takes place.

The standard conditions typically include a temperature of 298K, a pressure of 1 atm, and a concentration of 1M.

### Reactions between Strong and Weak Acids and Bases

When a strong acid reacts with a strong base, the acid and base ions combine to form water and a salt. For example, hydrochloric acid (HCl) reacts with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to form water (H2O) and sodium chloride (NaCl).

The hydrogen ions (H+) from the acid combine with the hydroxide ions (OH-) from the base to form water (H2O). The chloride ions (Cl-) from the acid and sodium ions (Na+) from the base combine to form sodium chloride (NaCl).

However, when a strong acid reacts with a weak base, not all of the acid molecules react with the base. The acid ionizes, releasing hydrogen ions (H+) into the solution, and the base partially dissociates, releasing hydroxide ions (OH-) into the solution.

For example, the reaction between hydrochloric acid and acetic acid (CH3COOH) forms water and acetate ions (CH3COO-). The reaction between hydrochloric acid and hydrocyanic acid (HCN) also forms water and cyanide ions (CN-).

## Calculation of Heat of Neutralization

### Formula for Calculating Heat Gained by Resultant Solution

The formula for calculating heat gained by resultant solution Qsoln is Qsoln = m x Cp x T, where m is the mass of the solution, Cp is the specific heat of the solution, and T is the change in temperature. The specific heat of a solution has a value of 4.18 J/goC.

### Calculating Heat of Reaction and Heat of Neutralization

The heat of reaction (Qrxn) is the amount of heat released or absorbed during a chemical reaction. It is calculated using the formula Qrxn = n x Hf, where n is the number of moles of the limiting reagent and Hf is the enthalpy of formation of the products.

The heat of neutralization (Hneut) is the heat released during a neutralization reaction. It is calculated using the formula Hneut = Qrxn/n, where n is the number of moles of the acid or base used in the reaction.

For example, if 50ml of 1M HCl reacts with 50ml of 1M NaOH in a coffee cup calorimeter, the limiting reagent is HCl. Assuming the temperature of the solution increased from 20C to 30C, we can calculate Qsoln as follows:

Qsoln = 100g x 4.18 J/goC x 10C = 4180 J

The heat released by the reaction (Qrxn) can be calculated as follows:

Qrxn = n x Hf = 1 mol HCl x -167.2 kJ/mol = -167.2 kJ

### The heat of neutralization can then be calculated as follows:

Hneut = Qrxn/n = -167.2 kJ/1 mol HCl = -167.2 kJ/mol

## Conclusion

In this article, we have covered the definition of heat of neutralization, reactions between strong and weak acids and bases, and how to calculate heat gained by the resultant solution, heat of reaction, and heat of neutralization. By understanding these concepts, we can gain a deeper understanding of chemical reactions and their properties.

## Example Problem

### Problem Details

Suppose we have equal volumes of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions, both at 1.2M concentration. We mix them in a calorimeter, and the resulting temperature of the solution is measured to be 29.4C.

Given that the specific heat of the solution is 4.18 J/goC and the density is 1.00 g/mL, what is the heat of neutralization?

### Solution

To solve this problem, we need to use the formula for calculating heat gained by the resultant solution Qsoln = m x Cp x T, where m is the mass of the solution, Cp is the specific heat of the solution, and T is the change in temperature. First, we need to find the mass of the solution.

Since the volumes of the acid and base are equal, the total volume of the solution is 2 x V, where V is the volume of either the acid or the base. Therefore, the mass of the solution can be calculated as follows:

mass = volume x density = 2V x 1.00 g/mL = 2V g

Next, we need to find the change in temperature.

Since the temperature of the solution increased from an initial temperature of 25C to a final temperature of 29.4C, the change in temperature can be calculated as follows:

T = Tf – Ti = 29.4C – 25C = 4.4C

Using the values we have found so far, we can calculate the heat gained by the resultant solution as follows:

Qsoln = m x Cp x T = (2V g) x (4.18 J/goC) x (4.4C) = 37.0 x V J

To calculate the number of moles of the limiting reagent, we need to use the following formula:

moles = concentration x volume

Since the volumes of the acid and base are equal and both have a concentration of 1.2M, the number of moles of HCl and NaOH are the same and can be calculated as follows:

moles = 1.2M x V

To determine the heat of reaction, we need to find the enthalpy of formation (Hf) of the products, which in this case are water and salt. The enthalpy of formation of water (Hf = -285.8 kJ/mol) and sodium chloride (Hf = -411.2 kJ/mol) can be found in standard reference sources.

Since one mole of HCl reacts with one mole of NaOH to form one mole of water and one mole of salt (NaCl), the heat of reaction can be calculated as follows:

Qrxn = (1.2M x V) x [(1 mol x -285.8 kJ/mol) + (1 mol x -411.2 kJ/mol)] = -918.24 x V kJ

Finally, we can use the formula for calculating the heat of neutralization:

Hneut = Qrxn / (1.2M x V) = [-918.24 x V kJ] / (1.2M x V) = -765.2 kJ/mol

Therefore, the heat of neutralization for the given reaction is -765.2 kJ/mol.

## Conclusion

In this example problem, we have shown how to calculate the heat of neutralization when given the initial concentrations of an aqueous acid and base, the volumes of their solutions, the final temperature of the mixed solution, and certain physical properties of the solution. By following the necessary steps and using the appropriate formulas for calculating the heat gained by the resultant solution, the heat of reaction, and the heat of neutralization, we can obtain the final answer for the problem.

The concept of heat of neutralization, as well as the calculations involved in determining its value, are essential in understanding the properties and behavior of chemical reactions. In this article, we have discussed the heat of neutralization, reactions between strong and weak acids and bases, the formula for calculating heat gained by resultant solution, and how to calculate heat of reaction and heat of neutralization.

Understanding these concepts is fundamental in understanding chemical reactions and their properties. Through an example problem, we have demonstrated how to apply these concepts in practice to solve complex problems.

It is important to appreciate that heat of neutralization is a crucial parameter in various fields such as engineering, environmental science, and pharmacology.

## FAQs:

**Q: What is heat of neutralization?****A:**Heat of neutralization is the heat change that occurs during a neutralization reaction between an aqueous acid and aqueous base resulting in the formation of a salt and water.**Q: How do you calculate heat gained by the resultant solution?****A:**You can calculate heat gained by the resultant solution using the formula Qsoln = m x Cp x T, where m is the mass of the solution, Cp is the specific heat of the solution, and T is the change in temperature.**Q: How do you calculate the heat of reaction?****A:**The heat of reaction is calculated using the formula Qrxn = n x Hf, where n is the number of moles of the limiting reagent and Hf is the enthalpy of formation of the products.**Q: What is the heat of neutralization formula?****A:**The heat of neutralization formula is Hneut = Qrxn/n, where n is the number of moles of the acid or base used in the reaction.**Q: Why is the calculation of heat of neutralization important?****A:**The calculation of heat of neutralization is crucial in fields such as engineering, environmental science, and pharmacology as it aids in the design of chemical reactions and the manipulation of their properties.