Chem Explorers

Manganese: Exploring Its Fascinating Chemical and Magnetic Properties

Manganese – A Look at Its

Chemical Properties and Electron Configuration

Manganese is a powerful mineral, known for its incredible properties that are widely used in industrial and technological applications. As a versatile metal, manganese has a wealth of properties that make it ideal for a variety of industries, ranging from steel production to medicine.

In this article, we’ll take a closer look at the chemical properties of manganese and its electron configuration.

Chemical Properties of Manganese

Atomic Symbol and Group

Manganese is a chemical element with the atomic symbol Mn and belongs to the 7th group of the periodic table. This means that it has seven valence electrons in its outermost shell.

Period and Block

Manganese is a fourth-period element with a d-block configuration, which means it has a partially filled d-orbital with electrons in its valence shell.

Atomic Number and Weight

Manganese has an atomic number of 25, and its atomic weight is 54.9380 g/mol.

Electronegativity and Density

The electronegativity of manganese is 1.55, which means it tends to form covalent bonds with other elements. Its density is 7.21 g/cm3, which makes it denser than most elements at room temperature.

Melting and Boiling Point

Manganese has a high melting point of 1519 K and a boiling point of 2334 K. These high temperatures make it useful in high-temperature applications.

Vander Waals and Ionic Radius

The Vander Waals radius of manganese is 197 pm. The ionic radius varies depending on the oxidation state, and it can be found in the periodic table.


Manganese has one stable isotope, 55-Mn, and many radioisotopes.

Electron Configuration and Ionisation Energy

Electronic Shell and Configuration

The electron configuration of manganese is [Ar]3d5 4s2, meaning it has a total of 25 electrons distributed across its shells. The first shell has two electrons, the second shell has eight electrons, and the third shell has 13 electrons.

First, Second, and Third Ionisation Energy

Manganese has a first ionisation energy of 717.3 kJ/mol, a second ionisation energy of 1509.0 kJ/mol, and a third ionisation energy of 3248 kJ/mol. The high ionisation energy means that manganese atoms are relatively stable and resist losing or gaining electrons.

Applications of Manganese

Manganese is a vital element that has a wide range of applications in various industries. Here are some of the applications of manganese:


Steel Production – Manganese is essential in the production of steel. It acts as a key component in the process of creating steel alloys, which enhance the strength and durability of the final product.

2. Batteries – Manganese is used in several types of batteries, including lithium-ion batteries, alkaline batteries, and zinc-carbon batteries.

3. Agriculture – Manganese is a vital nutrient required by plants to grow.

It plays a role in chlorophyll production, which aids in photosynthesis. It also helps protect plants from pests and diseases.

4. Medicine – Manganese plays a role in several enzymatic reactions in the body, including carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism.

It is also essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system.


Manganese is a vital element with unique chemical properties and an intriguing electron configuration. Its range of applications is vast, and it is a vital component in a variety of industries.

Learning about the chemical properties of manganese and its electron configuration will enable us to understand its importance and its many uses.

3) Oxidation States and Allotropic Forms

Oxidation States

Manganese is a metal that can have various oxidation states. Its most stable oxidation state is +2, but it can also exist in the +3, +4, +6, and +7 oxidation states.

Manganese can effectively be used as a reducing agent, or in some situations as an oxidizing agent. The +2 oxidation state is the most commonly found state, and it’s stable due to the half-filled d5 orbital in the valence shell of the manganese atom.

In the other oxidation states, manganese either loses or gains electrons to reach stability.

Allotropic Forms

Manganese exhibits different allotropic forms, such as -manganese, -manganese, and -manganese, depending on temperature and pressure conditions. Alpha-manganese has a body-centered cubic structure, whereas beta-manganese has hexagonal close-packed structures.

The -form of manganese contains significantly higher temperatures than the -form and exhibits higher magnetic and electrical properties. These forms exist due to the different atomic arrangements in the crystal lattice.

4) Chemical Classification and Properties

Chemical Classification

Manganese is a chemically active element that exhibits a diverse range of reactivity and chemical attributes. It is classified as a transition metal due to its partially filled d-orbital and as a reactive element due to its tendency to undergo chemical reactions with other elements.

Chemical Properties

Manganese forms manganous salts, such as manganese sulfate, manganese nitrate, and manganese chloride. These salts are widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries.

Manganous sulfate is used as a micronutrient in livestock feed, while manganese chloride is used in the production of dry cell batteries. Manganese reacts vigorously with water and decomposes it to produce hydrogen gas.

The decomposition reaction occurs in the presence of acid or alkali and leads to the formation of manganous hydroxide and hydrogen gas. The reaction is highly exothermic and can lead to violent explosions, especially when manganese is in a finely divided form.

Manganese has aggressive reactions with several compounds, including halogens, sulfur, and nitrogen. The compound formed is often a mixture of different oxidation states of manganese, depending on the reaction conditions.

The permanganate ion (MnO4-) is a potent oxidizing agent and is widely used in analytical chemistry to determine the concentration of reducing agents. It can selectively oxidize several organic compounds to gain more valuable products and is used to purify and disinfect water and waste effluents.


In conclusion, manganese has diverse chemical properties and fascinating reactivity, making it a valuable element in various industries. Its unique electron configuration allows for many oxidation states and has allotropic forms, which make it incredibly versatile.

The manganous salts, particularly manganese sulfate, are useful in several industrial processes such as the production of dry cell batteries, as a micronutrient in animal feed, and more. And, the complex chemistry allows manganese to offer robust performance such as in the permanganate ion as an oxidizing agent.

5) Physical State and Magnetic Properties

Physical State at Room Temperature

At room temperature, manganese exists in a solid-state with a silvery-grey metallic appearance. The high melting and boiling points of manganese indicate that they are solid at room temperature, making it one of the least volatile metals.

Manganese is known for its unique electron configuration, with a partially filled d-orbitals, which makes it paramagnetic. This is a magnetic property of materials that occur due to the presence of unpaired electrons in their atomic or molecular orbitals.

When the magnetic fields are applied, the unpaired electrons in the material begin to align their spins, leading to an increase in the material’s magnetic susceptibility.


In the case of manganese, the unpaired electrons in its d-orbitals generate a magnetic moment that makes it paramagnetic. The magnetic moment is proportional to the number of unpaired electrons present in the material’s magnetic states.

Manganese has five unpaired electrons in its outer shell, resulting in a magnetic moment of +529.0106 cm3/mol. Furthermore, manganese exhibits anti-ferromagnetic behavior, where two magnetic sub-lattices align opposite to each other, leading to zero net magnetic moment.

Anti-ferromagnetism occurs when there is an even number, an odd number of electrons, or complete filling of the outermost orbitals of an element. Several properties of manganese can be attributed to its paramagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic behavior.

For instance, they exhibit the highest spin-crossover temperature among other transition metals. In additoin, manganese is used in creating alloys for permanent magnet materials.


Manganese exhibits paramagnetism since it has unpaired electrons, making it highly applicable in many magnetic materials. Some of its unique inherent properties, such as anti-ferromagnetism, are relative to the number of electrons in the outermost orbitals of an element.

Therefore, the magnetic properties of manganese are essential in materials science, enabling researchers to develop magnetic materials and electronic devices. Manganese is a vital element that boasts unique chemical properties and a fascinating electron configuration, making it an essential component in several industrial applications such as steel production, batteries, agriculture and medicine.

Manganese exhibits paramagnetic properties due to its unpaired electrons, specifically five in the outer shell, with effective anti-ferromagnetic properties. Because of their other properties, these make it a valuable resource in the field of material science for magnetic materials and electronic devices.

Frequently asked questions about manganese, such as its most stable oxidation state and whether it is a metal or nonmetal, were highlighted throughout the article and addressed in individual sentences.

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