Chem Explorers

Reactive and Toxic: Understanding Carbon Tetrabromide – Identification Preparation and Safety

Carbon Tetrabromide:

Identification and

PreparationCarbon tetrabromide (CBr4) is a colorless to yellowish liquid that has a faint, sweet odor. It is a powerful solvent, most commonly used in organic chemistry.

Carbon tetrabromide is a highly reactive and toxic compound that requires careful handling and proper disposal. In this article, we will discuss the identification and preparation of carbon tetrabromide.

Identification

The identification of carbon tetrabromide is essential to ensure its safe handling and disposal. Carbon tetrabromide has a CAS number of 558-13-4, a PubChem CID of 24408, and a ChemSpider ID of 22730.

It is also listed in the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) with an EC number of 209-189-0. The United Nations number for carbon tetrabromide is 2515, and it has a ChEBI ID of CHEBI:30490.

Furthermore, the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) number for carbon tetrabromide is FF6650000.

Preparation

Carbon tetrabromide can be prepared by several methods. One popular method is the bromination of methane, which involves the reaction of methane with bromine in the presence of ultraviolet light.

Another method is the reaction of hydrogen bromide or bromine with carbon disulfide. Carbon tetrabromide can also be obtained by the reaction of tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride) with aluminum bromide at high temperature.

The bromination of methane is a two-step process that involves the substitution of hydrogen atoms with bromine atoms. The first step is the initiation step, where the reaction is started with ultraviolet light.

In the second step, the propagation step, bromine atoms react with methane atoms to form methyl bromide. The reaction continues until all four hydrogen atoms on the methane molecule are replaced with bromine atoms, thus giving rise to carbon tetrabromide.

Another method of preparation involves the reaction of hydrogen bromide or bromine with carbon disulfide. This method is less preferred than the bromination of methane as it requires the use of toxic and hazardous chemicals.

The reaction proceeds in the presence of a catalyst such as iron and yields a mixture of carbon tetrabromide and hydrogen sulfide. The reaction of tetrachloromethane with aluminum bromide at high temperature represents the most commonly used method for the preparation of carbon tetrabromide.

The reaction proceeds in two steps: the first step involves the formation of the intermediate compound CBr3Cl from the reaction of tetrachloromethane with aluminum bromide, while the second step involves the substitution of chlorine atoms with bromine atoms to form CBr4.

Conclusion

Carbon tetrabromide is a highly reactive and toxic chemical compound that requires careful handling and disposal. The identification of carbon tetrabromide involves its key properties such as CAS number, PubChem, ChemSpider, EC number, UN number, ChEBI, and RTECS number.

The preparation of carbon tetrabromide can be achieved by several methods such as bromination of methane, reaction with hydrogen bromide or bromine, reaction with tetrachloromethane and aluminum bromide, and temperature. Each of these methods involves specific conditions and precautions that must be taken to ensure the safety of the researcher and the environment.

By understanding the identification and preparation of carbon tetrabromide, scientists and researchers can safely handle and utilize this compound in their research and experiments.

Carbon Tetrabromide

Formula and Physical and

Chemical Properties

Carbon tetrabromide (CBr4) is a chemical compound that consists of a central carbon atom and four bromine atoms arranged in a tetrahedral shape. In this section, we will discuss the formula of carbon tetrabromide and its physical and chemical properties.

Formula

The molecular formula of carbon tetrabromide is CBr4, which represents its composition of one central carbon atom and four surrounding bromine atoms. The molecular weight of CBr4 is 331.63 grams per mole.

Carbon tetrabromide has a density of 3.42 grams per cubic centimeter and is a covalent compound.

Physical Properties

Carbon tetrabromide is a colorless to yellowish liquid with a faint, sweet odor. The liquid has a density of 3.42 g/cm, making it heavier than water.

The melting point of CBr4 is 94C, and its boiling point is 190C. It has a molar mass of 331.63 g/mol.

Carbon tetrabromide has a refractive index of 1.6513 and a surface tension of 38 dyn/cm. The solubility of carbon tetrabromide varies based on the type of solvent used.

It is soluble in chloroform, benzene, and carbon tetrachloride. However, it is relatively insoluble in water.

At high pressures, carbon tetrabromide exhibits plastic crystallinity, which is a phenomenon in which the molecules partially align themselves in a crystalline structure but still retain the mobility of a liquid.

Chemical Properties

Carbon tetrabromide is a reactive and toxic compound that requires careful handling and disposal. It is used as a powerful solvent and is most commonly used in organic chemistry.

However, it reacts with many other chemicals and is not compatible with a wide range of materials, including many plastics. Carbon tetrabromide undergoes a range of chemical reactions, including oxidation, reduction, and substitution reactions.

The compound is highly reactive with halogens such as chlorine and iodine and reacts readily with concentrated sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide. When exposed to air, carbon tetrabromide can produce toxic fumes of bromine.

Carbon tetrabromide also reacts with water to form hydrobromic acid and carbon dioxide. The structure of carbon tetrabromide is tetrahedral, with the central carbon atom surrounded by four bromine atoms at the four vertices of the tetrahedron.

The molecular geometry of CBr4 is sp3, which means that it has four single-bonded pairs of electrons surrounding the central carbon atom, creating a tetrahedral structure.

Conclusion

Carbon tetrabromide is a colorless to yellowish liquid with a faint, sweet odor. It has a molecular formula of CBr4 and a density of 3.42 g/cm.

The compound is most commonly used as a powerful solvent in organic chemistry, but it must be handled with care due to its toxicity and reactivity. Carbon tetrabromide exhibits a range of physical and chemical properties, such as its solubility, molar mass, melting point, boiling point, and vapor pressure.

Its tetrahedral structure makes it highly reactive with other chemicals, and it reacts readily with halogens such as chlorine and iodine. Understanding the physical and chemical properties of carbon tetrabromide is crucial for researchers and scientists who use this compound in their research and experiments.

Carbon Tetrabromide

Reactions and

Uses

Carbon tetrabromide (CBr4) is a highly reactive chemical compound that can undergo a variety of chemical reactions. It is widely used in the chemical industry for its solvent properties and its ability to function as a blowing and vulcanizing agent.

In this section, we will discuss some of the common reactions of carbon tetrabromide as well as its various uses.

Reactions

The Appel reaction is a commonly used reaction involving carbon tetrabromide. This reaction involves the conversion of an alcohol to an alkyl bromide by treating it with a combination of carbon tetrabromide, triphenylphosphine, and a base.

The reaction proceeds via the formation of an intermediate compound, triphenylphosphine oxide, which is then converted into a leaving group, allowing the alkyl bromide to be formed. Another common reaction that carbon tetrabromide undergoes is the formation of N-bromoalkyl compounds by reacting with amines in the presence of sodium or potassium hydroxide.

The reaction proceeds through the formation of an intermediate compound, N-bromamine, which can then react with an alkene to form the N-bromoalkyl compound. Carbon tetrabromide can also act as a mild reducing agent in certain reactions, reducing aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols.

This reaction proceeds through the formation of an intermediate haloform, which then undergoes a series of proton transfers and reduction reactions to yield the desired alcohol. Finally, carbon tetrabromide can be used as a source of bromine atoms in a variety of other reactions, such as in the preparation of aryl bromides from aryl halides and in the bromination of unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Uses

Carbon tetrabromide is widely used in the chemical industry as a solvent due to its ability to dissolve a wide range of organic compounds. It is also used as a blowing and vulcanizing agent in the production of rubber and other elastomers.

In this application, carbon tetrabromide is reacted with peroxide compounds to generate reactive intermediates that crosslink the polymer chains, giving rise to the desired properties of strength, elasticity, and heat resistance. Another use of carbon tetrabromide is as a polymerizing agent in the production of polymers such as polycarbonates and polyesters.

In this application, carbon tetrabromide acts as an initiator for the polymerization reaction, forming reactive intermediates that facilitate the polymerization process. Carbon tetrabromide is also used in agrochemical manufacturing, where it is used to synthesize certain insecticides and herbicides.

In addition, it is used in the production of fire-resistant chemicals and in the separation of minerals such as scheelite and wolframite. Finally, carbon tetrabromide has been used in the medical field as a sedative and as a treatment for epilepsy and other neurological conditions.

However, its use in these applications has declined due to its toxicity and potential for adverse effects.

Stability

Carbon tetrabromide is a relatively stable compound, but it must be handled with care due to its toxicity and potential for adverse effects. It can decompose at high temperatures to release toxic bromine vapors and can react violently with water, which can lead to the formation of hydrobromic acid.

Furthermore, carbon tetrabromide is not compatible with many materials, including many plastics, and can be dangerously reactive with a range of chemicals.

Conclusion

Carbon tetrabromide is a highly reactive and versatile compound with a range of uses in the chemical industry. It can undergo a variety of chemical reactions, including the Appel reaction and the formation of N-bromoalkyl compounds, and can act as a mild reducing agent and a source of bromine atoms.

Carbon tetrabromide is widely used as a solvent, blowing and vulcanizing agent, and polymerizing agent in the production of various materials, and it has applications in agrochemical manufacturing, fire-resistant chemicals, and minerals separation. However, it must be handled with care due to its toxicity and potential for adverse effects, and it is not compatible with many materials.

Carbon Tetrabromide MSDS:

Health Hazards, Handling, Containment, and Price

Carbon tetrabromide (CBr4) is a highly reactive and toxic chemical compound that requires careful handling and disposal. In this section, we will discuss the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for carbon tetrabromide, which provides valuable information on health hazards, handling, containment, and storage instructions, as well as the price and availability of the compound.

Health Hazards

Carbon tetrabromide can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory system upon exposure. Short-term exposure can also cause nausea, dizziness, headaches, and even unconsciousness.

Furthermore, carbon tetrabromide is a potential mutagen and carcinogen, making it a significant health risk for those exposed to the compound over a long period.

Handling and Containment

Carbon tetrabromide must be handled with care and according to proper safety procedures. Workers handling this compound should wear personal protective equipment, including gloves, goggles, and a respirator, to avoid exposure to the compound.

If exposure does occur, the affected area should be washed immediately with soap and water, and medical attention should be sought if symptoms persist. When dealing with carbon tetrabromide, proper containment measures must be put in place to prevent release of the compound into the environment.

In the event of a spill or leak, a spill containment kit must be used, and all exposed workers should be evacuated from the area until the spill has been cleaned up and the risk of exposure has been eliminated.

Storage Instructions

Carbon tetrabromide must be stored in a cool, dry, and well-ventilated area away from heat, sparks, and flame sources. The compound must be stored in a securely closed container, and incompatible materials should be kept separate to avoid the risk of chemical reactions.

Carbon tetrabromide should be stored according to all relevant regulations and guidelines to ensure the safety of workers and the environment.

Price and Availability

The price and availability of carbon tetrabromide will depend on a number of factors, including the location, supplier, and quantity required. However, due to its toxicity and potential health hazards, carbon tetrabromide is a controlled substance, and its availability may be restricted in some areas.

It is essential to source this compound from reputable suppliers who follow all safety regulations and guidelines to ensure the quality and safety of the product.

Conclusion

Carbon tetrabromide is a highly reactive and toxic chemical compound that requires careful handling and disposal. The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) provides valuable information on the health hazards associated with the compound, as well as instructions for handling, containment, and storage.

To ensure worker safety and environmental protection, it is crucial to handle carbon tetrabromide according to all relevant safety regulations and guidelines and to source this compound from reputable suppliers who follow strict safety protocols. In conclusion, carbon tetrabromide is a highly reactive and toxic chemical compound that requires careful handling and disposal.

Its identification and preparation involve specific properties and reactions such as the Appel reaction and its various uses as a solvent, blowing and vulcanizing agent, and polymerizing agent. The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) provides critical information on health hazards, safety measures, and storage instructions.

It is essential for individuals to handle carbon tetrabromide according to safety regulations and guidelines to ensure worker safety and environmental protection. The importance of proper handling, containment, and storage cannot be overstated, as it helps minimize health risks and prevent environmental contamination.

As we continue to explore the potential of chemical compounds, it is imperative that we prioritize safety and responsible use to both protect ourselves and the world around us. FAQs:

1.

What are the health hazards of carbon tetrabromide? Exposure to carbon tetrabromide can cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and long-term health risks due to its potential mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.

2. How should carbon tetrabromide be handled to ensure safety?

Proper handling includes using personal protective equipment, such as gloves and goggles, and following appropriate safety protocols to minimize exposure. 3.

What should be done in the event of a carbon tetrabromide spill? In the event of a spill, it is crucial to evacuate the area, use spill containment measures, and clean up the spill promptly to prevent further exposure and environmental contamination.

4. How should carbon tetrabromide be stored?

Carbon tetrabromide should be stored in a cool, dry, and well-ventilated area, away from heat sources, in a securely closed container, and following all relevant storage regulations and guidelines. 5.

Where can one find carbon tetrabromide and is it readily available? Carbon tetrabromide may be available from chemical suppliers; however, due to its toxicity and potential health hazards, its availability may be restricted, and it is crucial to source it from reputable suppliers who follow safety regulations and guidelines.

Popular Posts