Chem Explorers

The Versatile Compound: Calcium Nitrate – Composition Synthesis and Reactions

Calcium Nitrate: Understanding the

Composition and Synthesis

Calcium nitrate is a white crystalline compound that is widely used in agriculture, manufacturing, and as a de-icing agent. It is also known as lime nitrate or Norwegian saltpeter.

In this article, we will explore the chemical formula, IUPAC nomenclature, identification, composition, and synthesis of calcium nitrate.

Definition of Calcium Nitrate

Calcium nitrate has the chemical formula Ca(NO3)2 and is a water-soluble salt made up of two chemical components, calcium and nitrate. The IUPAC nomenclature of calcium nitrate is calcium dinitrate.

Calcium nitrate is commonly used in the manufacturing industry as a source of both calcium and nitrogen.

Identification of Calcium Nitrate

Calcium nitrate has several identification numbers to help us identify it. It has a CAS number of 13477-34-4, PubChem CID of 24541, ChemSpider ID of 22884, UN number of 1454, EC Number of 233-332-1, RTECS number of EW2985000, UNII of H64WAWN98J, and ICSC number of 0183.

The InChI Key is YXFYDPGINKHEGA-UHFFFAOYSA-N.

Composition and Synthesis

There are three main methods of producing calcium nitrate, including reaction with calcium carbonate and nitric acid, the Odda process, and synthesis through reaction with calcium hydroxide and ammonium nitrate solution.

Production through Reaction with Calcium Carbonate and Nitric Acid

The reaction between calcium carbonate and nitric acid produces calcium nitrate and carbon dioxide gas. The reaction can be represented using the following chemical equation:

CaCO3 + 2HNO3 Ca(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O

The resulting calcium nitrate is then purified and dried, resulting in a white crystalline compound.

Production through Odda Process

The Odda process is an industrial process that involves the recovery of nitrogen from calcium nitrate. This process was developed by Norsk Hydro in 1927 and involves the following steps:

1.

Phosphoric acid is added to calcium nitrate to produce nitric acid and calcium phosphate. 2.

The nitric acid is then used to make more calcium nitrate through a process called the Ostwald process. 3.

The calcium phosphate is washed and used as a fertilizer.

Synthesis through Reaction with Calcium Hydroxide and Ammonium Nitrate Solution

Calcium nitrate can be synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide with ammonium nitrate solution. The reaction produces calcium nitrate and ammonium hydroxide.

Ca(OH)2 + 2NH4NO3 Ca(NO3)2 + 2NH4OH

This method of synthesis is commonly used in the laboratory and is relatively simple.

Conclusion

Calcium nitrate is a versatile compound that is used in many different industries. It is an important source of both calcium and nitrogen, making it useful as a fertilizer and a manufacturing agent.

The synthesis of calcium nitrate can be achieved through three main methods, including reaction with calcium carbonate and nitric acid, the Odda process, and synthesis through reaction with calcium hydroxide and ammonium nitrate solution. Understanding the chemical composition and synthesis of calcium nitrate can provide valuable insights into its use and potential applications.

Reaction with Other Compounds

Calcium nitrate, being a salt, readily reacts with various compounds to produce new substances with different properties and characteristics. The resulting products are widely used in agriculture, industry, and research.

In this section, we will discuss the reactions of calcium nitrate with different compounds and their significance.

Aqueous Calcium Nitrate and Aqueous Sodium Phosphate

When aqueous calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) is mixed with aqueous sodium phosphate (Na3PO4), calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) is precipitated as a solid due to the insolubility of this compound in water. The balanced chemical equation for the reaction is given below:

3Ca(NO3)2 + 2Na3PO4 Ca3(PO4)2 + 6NaNO3

Calcium phosphate is an important compound used as a fertilizer and a supplement in animal feed.

The precipitation reaction of calcium phosphate from aqueous solution plays a vital role in the cleanup of wastewater and the removal of phosphate from waste streams.

Calcium Nitrate and Ammonium Phosphate

When calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) is mixed with ammonium phosphate (NH4)3PO4), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) are formed as products. The balanced chemical equation for the reaction is:

3Ca(NO3)2 + 2(NH4)3PO4 6NH4NO3 + Ca3(PO4)2

The reaction is often used to recover phosphorus, a valuable nutrient, from wastewater effluent and animal manure.

Calcium phosphate, the by-product, is desirable in the manufacturing of fertilizers.

Calcium Nitrate and Sodium Acetate

When calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) is mixed with sodium acetate (NaC2H3O2), sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium acetate (Ca(C2H3O2)2) are formed. The balanced chemical equation for the reaction is:

Ca(NO3)2 + 2NaC2H3O2 Ca(C2H3O2)2 + 2NaNO3

This reaction is a double displacement reaction, where the two compounds exchange ions to produce the products.

Calcium acetate is used as a food additive and medication, while sodium nitrate is used in the production of fertilizers, pyrotechnics, and food additives.

Calcium Nitrate and Ammonium Fluoride

When calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) is mixed with ammonium fluoride (NH4F), nitrous oxide (N2O) and calcium fluoride (CaF2) are formed. The balanced chemical equation for the reaction is:

Ca(NO3)2 + 4NH4F 2N2O + CaF2 + 4NH4NO3

Nitrous oxide, also called laughing gas, is used in medicine and dentistry as an anesthetic and analgesic.

Calcium fluoride is used in the production of ceramics, welding fluxes, and toothpaste.

Calcium Nitrate and Magnesium Sulfate

When calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) is mixed with magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), calcium sulfate (CaSO4) and magnesium nitrate (Mg(NO3)2) are formed. The balanced chemical equation for the reaction is:

Ca(NO3)2 + MgSO4 Mg(NO3)2 + CaSO4

Calcium sulfate, also called gypsum, is used in the production of cement, plaster, and as a soil conditioner in agriculture.

Magnesium nitrate is used as a fertilizer and in the production of magnesium metal.

Calcium Nitrate and Potassium Chloride

When calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) is mixed with potassium chloride (KCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and potassium nitrate (KNO3) are formed. The balanced chemical equation for the reaction is:

Ca(NO3)2 + 2KCl CaCl2 + 2KNO3

Calcium chloride is widely used as a de-icing agent on roads and highways, as an antifreeze in concrete, and as a desiccant to absorb moisture.

Potassium nitrate is used as a fertilizer, food preservative, and in the production of gunpowder.

Calcium Nitrate and Sodium Carbonate

When calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) is mixed with sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and sodium nitrate (NaNO3) are formed. The balanced chemical equation for the reaction is:

Ca(NO3)2 + Na2CO3 CaCO3 + 2NaNO3

Calcium carbonate is an important mineral used in the production of lime, cement, and as a dietary supplement.

It is also the main component of the mineral calcite. Sodium nitrate is used as a food preservative, fertilizer, and in the production of glass.

Calcium Nitrate and Sodium Chloride

When calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) is mixed with sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and sodium nitrate (NaNO3) are formed. The balanced chemical equation for the reaction is:

Ca(NO3)2 + 2NaCl CaCl2 + 2NaNO3

Calcium chloride is used as a de-icing agent, food additive, and in the production of concrete.

Sodium nitrate is used as a food preservative, fertilizer, and in the production of glass.

Calcium Nitrate and Sodium Hydroxide

When calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) is mixed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and sodium nitrate (NaNO3) are formed. The balanced chemical equation for the reaction is:

Ca(NO3)2 + 2NaOH Ca(OH)2 + 2NaNO3

Calcium hydroxide is used in agriculture, as a flocculant in wastewater treatment, and in the production of lime.

Sodium nitrate is used as a food preservative, fertilizer, and in the production of fireworks.

Properties and Characteristics of Calcium Nitrate

General Properties

Calcium nitrate has a molar mass of 164 g/mol and appears as a white crystalline solid in its pure form. It has a melting point of 561C and a boiling point of 132C.

Calcium nitrate has a density of 2.50 g/cm3 and is in a solid state at room temperature. It is highly soluble in water and has a pH of 5-7.

Atomic Properties

Calcium nitrate has a crystal structure that is monoclinic in nature. It has a lattice structure where calcium ions (Ca2+) are surrounded by six nitrate ions (NO3-) in a distorted octahedral pattern.

Uses

Calcium nitrate has various applications, including its use as a fertilizer, wastewater treatment, set-accelerating admixtures, cold packs, heat-storage medium, and heat-transfer fluid. It is also used in the production of pyrotechnics and fireworks.

Calcium nitrate is used in the manufacturing of nitric acid, hydroxylamine, and other nitrogenous compounds.

Safety

Calcium nitrate is generally considered harmful and potentially toxic if ingested or inhaled. It can cause severe irritation and damage to the respiratory system, skin, and eyes.

Calcium nitrate is also a fire hazard and can produce toxic fumes when heated or burned. Appropriate safety measures and precautions should be taken when handling calcium nitrate.

Conclusion

Calcium nitrate is a versatile compound that readily reacts with various other compounds, leading to the formation of new products with varying properties and uses. The reactions of calcium nitrate and its characteristics make it a valuable compound in many fields, including agriculture, industry, and research.

When handling calcium nitrate, safety must be a top priority to prevent potential harm, irritation, or damage. In summary, Calcium nitrate is a vital compound used in a variety of industries due to its unique properties and characteristic reactions.

It is important to understand the composition and synthesis of calcium nitrate and its reaction with other compounds to identify its potential applications. Calcium nitrates molar mass, appearance, melting point, boiling point, density, pH, state of matter, and solubility are paramount to comprehend.

Safety measures and precautions when handling calcium nitrate are crucial to prevent potential harm. The takeaway from this article is that Calcium nitrate plays a vital role in agriculture, industry, and research.

FAQs:

Q: What is the chemical formula for Calcium nitrate?

A: The chemical formula for calcium nitrate is Ca(NO3)2.

Q: What is the IUPAC nomenclature of Calcium nitrate?

A: The IUPAC nomenclature of calcium nitrate is calcium dinitrate.

Q: What is the production process of Calcium Nitrate?

A: The production of calcium nitrate can be achieved through three main methods, including reaction with calcium carbonate and nitric acid, the Odda process, and synthesis through reaction with calcium hydroxide and ammonium nitrate solution.

Q: What products are formed after the reaction of Calcium Nitrate with Sodium Chloride?

A: Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and sodium nitrate (NaNO3) are formed when Calcium Nitrate is mixed with Sodium Chloride.

Q: What are the properties and characteristics of Calcium Nitrate?

A: The properties and characteristics of Calcium Nitrate include molar mass, appearance, melting point, boiling point, density, pH, state of matter and solubility.

Q: What is the major application of Calcium Nitrate?

A: Calcium nitrate has various applications, including its use as a fertilizer, wastewater treatment, set-accelerating admixtures, cold packs, heat-storage, and heat-transfer fluid, and in the production of pyrotechnics and fireworks.

Q: Why is safety important when handling Calcium Nitrate?

A: Calcium Nitrate is generally considered harmful and potentially toxic if ingested or inhaled.

It can cause severe irritation and damage to the respiratory system, skin, and eyes. Calcium nitrate is also a fire hazard and can produce toxic fumes when heated or burned.

Popular Posts