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Uncovering the Unique Properties of Thulium: A Comprehensive Overview

Thulium: Chemical Properties and Its Place in the Periodic Table

Thulium is a rare earth metal with atomic number 69 and symbol Tm. It is named after the mythical land of Thule, which was said to be located beyond the northernmost part of the world. In this article, we will explore the chemical properties of thulium and its place in the periodic table.

Physical Properties of Thulium

Thulium has a silvery luster, and like most rare earth metals, it is malleable and ductile. It can be easily shaped into thin wires and sheets without losing its strength.

Thulium has a melting point of 1545 C and a boiling point of 1950 C. It is a soft metal that can be scratched easily.

Isotopes of Thulium

Thulium has 35 isotopes, with atomic masses ranging from 145 Tm to 179 Tm. However, only one of these isotopes, 169 Tm, is stable, while the rest are radioactive. The half-life of radioactive thulium isotopes ranges from a few minutes to millions of years.

Electronic Configuration of Thulium

Thulium has a unique electronic configuration with four shells of electrons: two in the first shell, eight in the second shell, 18 in the third shell, and 27 in the fourth shell. The valence shell of thulium has seven electrons in the d orbitals and 13 electrons in the f orbitals.

This gives thulium an oxidation state of +3, as it loses three electrons to form a stable cation.

Ionization Energy of Thulium

The ionization energy of thulium is the energy required to remove an electron from a thulium atom. The first ionization energy of thulium is 596.7 kJ/mol, which is relatively high compared to other rare earth metals.

This indicates that thulium has a strong hold on its electrons and is less likely to form cations.

Oxidation State of Thulium

Thulium has only one stable oxidation state, which is +3. This means that thulium loses three electrons to form a cation.

Thulium is less reactive than other rare earth metals, and it does not readily react with air or water. However, it can slowly react with dilute acids to form thulium (III) salts.

Allotropes of Thulium

Thulium has two allotropes, tetragonal -Tm and stable hexagonal -Tm. Tetragonal thulium is formed when thulium is rapidly cooled from a liquid state, while stable hexagonal thulium is formed when thulium is slowly cooled at around 1100 C. The hexagonal form of thulium is more stable and is the form most commonly found in its natural state.

Thulium in the Periodic Table

Thulium belongs to the lanthanides group in the periodic table, which is located in the f block. All the elements in this group have similar properties, and they are collectively referred to as rare earth metals.

Thulium is the penultimate member of the lanthanide series, which means that it has similar electronic structures and properties to the other lanthanides. Thulium has 69 protons and an atomic weight of 168.89 g/mol.

Its electronegativity, which is a measure of its ability to attract electrons, is 1.2 according to Pauling. Thulium has an atomic density of 9.3 g/cm3, which is relatively high compared to other metals.

Conclusion

In this article, we have explored the chemical properties of thulium, including its physical properties, isotopes, electronic configuration, ionization energy, oxidation state, and allotropes. We have also looked at its place in the periodic table, including its group and period, block, atomic number and weight, electronegativity, and atomic density.

Thulium is a fascinating element with various unique properties, and its role in science and technology is significant. By understanding its chemical properties and place in the periodic table, we can appreciate its importance even more.

Thulium: A Comprehensive Look at Its Physical and Other Properties

Thulium is a rare earth metal with atomic number 69 and symbol Tm. In this article, we will delve deeper into the physical properties of thulium, including its melting and boiling points, Vander Waals radius, and ionic/covalent radius, state at room temperature, and its paramagnetism. Additionally, we will provide information on other properties of thulium, including its CAS number and ChemSpider ID, and its chemical classification.

Physical Properties of Thulium

Thulium is a metal that has a silvery lustre. It is malleable, ductile, and can be shaped into thin wires or sheets without losing its strength.

Its melting point is 1545C, and its boiling point is 1947C. The high melting and boiling point of thulium indicate that it has strong metallic bonds.

The Vander Waals radius of thulium is not provided as it is not a molecular compound but instead a metal. However, the ionic radius of Tm3+ ion is 0.869A o, while its covalent radius is 1.759A o.

Thulium is a solid metal at room temperature. The metal is classified as a paramagnetic substance because of its unpaired electrons in its atomic structure.

In paramagnetic substances, the magnetic dipoles of the electrons align with an external magnetic field, causing them to be attracted to it.

Other Properties of Thulium

The CAS number of Thulium is 7440-30-4, and its ChemSpider ID is 22400. The CAS number is a unique numerical identifier assigned to each chemical substance.

This identifier helps to avoid confusion between chemicals with similar names. The ChemSpider ID is an online database of chemical structures that allows researchers to reference and access chemical information.

Thulium is a rare earth metal, which belongs to the group of metallic elements with similar properties found in the periodic table. Thulium is also classified as a reactive metal, which means that it can easily undergo chemical reactions with other substances.

However, it is less reactive than some other rare earth metals and does not react with air or water as readily. Thulium has a relatively high atomic number, which means that it has a greater density than many other elements, including some other rare earth metals.

Thulium is used in various technological applications because of its unique chemical and physical properties. It can be used as a radiation source in cancer treatment, as it emits X-rays and gamma rays when exposed to radioactive particles, which can destroy cancer cells.

Thulium is also used as a component in high-strength magnets and laser technology.

Conclusion

In this article, we have explored in detail the physical properties of thulium, including its melting and boiling points, Vander Waals radius, and ionic/covalent radius, state at room temperature, and its paramagnetism. Additionally, we have provided information on other properties of thulium, such as its CAS number and ChemSpider ID, and its chemical classification.

Thulium is an essential element in various technological applications, and its unique properties make it highly sought after in research and industry. Understanding thulium’s properties is a crucial step towards unlocking its full potential in various applications in the future.

Thulium is a rare earth metal with unique and fascinating physical and chemical properties. Its high-value properties make it a crucial element in many technological applications, such as cancer treatment, high-strength magnets, and laser technology.

Thulium has a strong metallic bond with high melting and boiling points and is classified as a paramagnetic substance. Understanding Thulium’s properties is essential for exploiting its full potential in various fields to make the world a better place.

FAQs: What is Thulium? Thulium is a rare earth metal with atomic number 69 and symbol Tm. What is the CAS number and ChemSpider ID of thulium?

Thulium’s CAS number is 7440-30-4, and its ChemSpider ID is 22400. What is Thulium used for?

Thulium is used in various technological applications such as cancer treatment, high-strength magnets, and laser technology.

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