Chem Explorers

Unleashing the Power of Chemistry: Dive into Reactants Products and Titration

Chemistry is the scientific study of matter, its properties, and the changes it undergoes. From the smallest atoms to complex chemical reactions, chemistry plays a vital role in our daily lives.

Many products and processes that we use and rely on are the result of chemical reactions. In this article, we will delve into two essential topics in chemistry reactants and products and titration.

Reactants and Products

Chemical reactions occur when reactants combine to form new products. Hydrochloric acid and potassium dichromate are examples of reactants that can undergo a dissociation reaction to produce products such as potassium chloride, chromium(III) chloride, chlorine gas, and water.

The dissociation reaction, also known as double replacement reaction, occurs when the reactants exchange their ions to form new products. In the case of hydrochloric acid and potassium dichromate, the products formed are potassium chloride, chromium(III) chloride, chlorine gas, and water, as shown by the balanced chemical equation below.

2HCl + K2Cr2O7 2KCl + CrCl3 + 3Cl2 + 7H2O

The equation shows that two molecules of hydrochloric acid (HCl) combine with one molecule of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) to produce two molecules of potassium chloride (KCl), one molecule of chromium(III) chloride (CrCl3), three molecules of chlorine gas (Cl2), and seven molecules of water (H2O). To balance the equation, we need to make sure that the number of atoms on the left-hand side of the equation is equal to the number of atoms on the right-hand side.

In the balanced equation, we see that there are the same number of hydrogen (H), chlorine (Cl), and oxygen (O) atoms on both sides of the equation.


Titration is an analytical technique that involves the addition of a solution of known concentration (the titrant) to a solution of unknown concentration (the analyte) until the reaction between them is complete. This process allows us to determine the exact concentration of the analyte solution.

The apparatus used in titration includes a burette, conical flask, and a burette stand. The sample is placed in the conical flask, and the titrant is added in small quantities from the burette until the reaction is complete.

The endpoint of the reaction is usually detected by the use of an indicator. In the case of determining the concentration of hydrochloric acid, we can use potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) as a titrant.

The reaction that occurs is as follows:

K2Cr2O7 + 14HCl 2CrCl3 + 2KCl + 7Cl2 + 7H2O

In this reaction, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) reacts with hydrochloric acid (HCl) to form chromium(III) chloride (CrCl3), potassium chloride (KCl), chlorine gas (Cl2), and water (H2O). The balanced equation shows that the ratio of potassium dichromate to hydrochloric acid is 1:14.

To determine the concentration of hydrochloric acid using titration, we first add an indicator to the sample solution. The indicator used is usually phenolphthalein which changes color at the endpoint of the reaction.

We then slowly add the titrant solution (potassium dichromate) from the burette to the sample solution until the endpoint is reached. The endpoint is the point at which the reaction between the titrant and the analyte is complete, and we detect a color change in the solution.

At this point, we have added enough titrant to neutralize all the hydrochloric acid in the sample solution. The amount of titrant added to the sample solution is called the titration or titre.

The volume of the titrant used is then used to calculate the concentration of the analyte solution using the formula:

Concentration of analyte solution = (Volume of titrant x Concentration of titrant) / Volume of analyte solution


In conclusion, chemistry plays a vital role in our daily lives, and the study of chemical reactions and titration are essential topics in the field of chemistry. By understanding these topics, we can understand the chemical reactions that occur around us and gain insights into the properties of matter.

Net Ionic Equation

A net ionic equation is a chemical equation that represents the species that actively participate in a reaction. It excludes spectator ions that do not contribute to the reaction but exist in the solution.

To write a net ionic equation, we need to identify and separate the spectator ions from the reactants and products. For example, if potassium ions (K+) and chloride ions (Cl-) are mixed in an aqueous medium, they react to form a crystal lattice of potassium chloride (KCl).

The chemical equation for this reaction is represented as follows:

K+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) KCl (s)

The aqueous medium indicates that the potassium and chloride ions are present in the solution. However, during the reaction, the ions combine to form a solid, and hence, they no longer exist as independent ions.

Thus, the only species that contribute to the reaction are the potassium and chloride ions that form the crystal lattice. Therefore, the net ionic equation for this reaction is:

K+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) KCl (s)

Another example of a net ionic equation is the reaction between yellowish chlorine gas (Cl2) and chromium(III) ions (Cr3+) to form chromium(III) chloride (CrCl3) in an aqueous medium.

During the reaction, the chlorine gas dissolves in water to form hydrochloric acid (HCl). The yellowish colour of chlorine gas fades away as this decomposition reaction takes place.

The chemical equation for this reaction is:

Cl2 (g) + 6H2O (l) + 2Cr3+ (aq) 2CrCl3 (aq) + 6H+ (aq) + 6Cl- (aq)

To write the net ionic equation, we identify the species that actively participate in the reaction, excluding spectator ions. In this reaction, the hydrochloric acid that is formed is a strong acid and completely dissociates into its constituent ions, i.e., H+ and Cl-.

Hence, the net ionic equation for this reaction is:

Cl2 (g) + 2Cr3+ (aq) + 6H2O (l) 2Cr3+ (aq) + 6Cl- (aq) + 6H+ (aq)

Conjugate Pairs and Intermolecular Forces

Conjugate pairs are the acid and base species that are formed when a compound donates or accepts a proton. For instance, when hydrochloric acid (HCl) dissolves in water, it donates a proton (H+) to water to form hydronium ions (H3O+).

The remaining species, Cl-, is termed as the conjugate base of HCl, while HCl is called the conjugate acid of Cl-. When aqueous solutions of conjugate acid-base pairs are mixed, the acid and base react to form their respective conjugate pairs.

During this reaction, the acid donates a proton to form its conjugate base, while the base accepts the proton to form its conjugate acid. Ionic interactions are predominately responsible for the formation of a crystal lattice of ionic compounds such as potassium chloride (KCl).

Ionic compounds occur as a result of the attraction between opposite electric charges on ions. In KCl, the potassium ion (K+) and chloride ion (Cl-) are held together in the crystal lattice through the attractions between oppositely charged ions.

Van der Waals forces, on the other hand, are weak intermolecular forces that result from the attraction or repulsion between atoms or molecules. Van der Waals forces include London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole interactions, and hydrogen bonding.

These forces are responsible for the interaction between non-polar molecules, polar molecules, and hydrogen bonding, respectively. The strong ionic interactions in a crystal lattice overrule the weaker Van der Waals forces between the ions.

The crystal lattice of ionic compounds is held together by the strong electrostatic attraction between cations and anions.


Enthalpy (H) is a thermodynamic property that describes the heat content of a system at constant pressure. It is a state function; its values depend on the initial and final states of a system and not the pathway taken to get there.

Enthalpy change (H) is the difference between the enthalpy of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction. An exothermic reaction releases heat into the surroundings and has a negative enthalpy of reaction (H < 0), while an endothermic reaction absorbs heat from the surroundings and has a positive enthalpy of reaction (H > 0).

Enthalpy change can be measured experimentally using calorimetry.

Enthalpy of formation (Hf) represents the enthalpy change that occurs when one mole of a substance is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states at a specified temperature and pressure. The standard state of an element is its most stable form at a given temperature and pressure.

For example, the standard state of oxygen gas (O2) is a diatomic molecule. Standard enthalpy of formation (Hf) is the value of enthalpy of formation of a substance under standard conditions of temperature and pressure.

The standard conditions for enthalpy changes are 25C and 1 atm pressure.

Enthalpy is an essential concept in thermodynamics; it allows us to predict whether a reaction is exothermic or endothermic and to calculate the energy exchanges during the reaction. It is also used in the design of chemical processes and the production of energy.

Characteristics of Reaction

A chemical reaction occurs when reactants undergo a transformation to form new products. There are several characteristics of chemical reactions that help us to classify them and understand their behavior.

Buffer Solution and Completeness of Reaction

A buffer solution is a solution that can resist changes in pH when a small amount of acid or base is added to it. Buffer solutions are formed by mixing a weak acid or base and its conjugate base or acid.

In a buffer solution, the concentration of H+ ions is equal to the concentration of OH- ions, resulting in a neutral pH. In a non-buffer solution, the addition of an acid or base can significantly alter the pH of the solution, resulting in a complete reaction.

A complete reaction is one where all the reactants are consumed to form the maximum possible amount of products. The completeness of a reaction depends on the stoichiometry of the reaction, i.e., the ratio of the reactants and products.

Redox and Precipitation Reaction

Redox (reduction-oxidation) reactions occur when electrons are transferred from one molecule to another. These reactions involve the transfer of electrons from a reducing agent to an oxidizing agent.

The reducing agent is oxidized, while the oxidizing agent is reduced. The oxidation state of the elements in the reactants and products changes during a redox reaction.

Precipitation reactions occur when a solid compound forms from a solution. During precipitation reactions, two aqueous solutions are mixed to form an insoluble solid compound known as a precipitate.

Precipitation reactions occur between anions and cations that form an insoluble salt. One example of a precipitation reaction is the reaction between silver ions (Ag+) and chloride ions (Cl-) in a solution to form solid silver chloride precipitate (AgCl).

Ag+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) AgCl (s)

In addition to redox and precipitation reactions, some chemical reactions may also result in the formation of gas, also known as a gas-forming reaction. For example, the reaction between an acid and a carbonate results in the formation of carbon dioxide gas.

H+ (aq) + CO3^2- (aq) H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

Reversibility and Displacement Reaction

Reversible reactions are the ones that can occur in either direction. They are represented by a double-headed arrow in the chemical equation.

In reversible reactions, the reactants can form products, and the products can form reactants, depending on the conditions. For example, the reaction between hydrogen and iodine to form hydrogen iodide gas is a reversible reaction.

H2 (g) + I2 (g) 2HI (g)

In contrast, irreversible reactions are chemical reactions that proceed in one direction only; reactants are converted into products and cannot be reversed. For instance, combustion reactions are irreversible.

Displacement reactions are chemical reactions where one element or ion is replaced by another element or ion in a compound. Displacement reactions occur when a more reactive metal displaces a less reactive metal from a compound.

One example of a displacement reaction is the reaction between copper(II) sulfate and iron. CuSO4 (aq) + Fe (s) FeSO4 (aq) + Cu (s)

In this reaction, iron (Fe) displaces copper (Cu) from copper (II) sulfate forming iron (II) sulfate and copper (Cu) metal.


In conclusion, characteristics of chemical reactions such as buffer solutions, completeness of reaction, redox reactions, precipitation reactions, reversibility, and displacement reactions are essential concepts in chemistry. Understanding these characteristics allows us to classify reactions, predict their behavior, and optimize chemical processes.

Chemistry encompasses a wide range of topics, and in this article, we have explored some fundamental concepts such as reactants and products, titration, net ionic equations, enthalpy, characteristics of reactions, and more. Understanding these topics is crucial for comprehending the behavior of matter and chemical reactions in our daily lives.

From balancing chemical equations to analyzing the completeness of reactions, the knowledge gained from these concepts allows us to predict and manipulate chemical transformations. Whether it’s identifying the products formed in a reaction, determining the concentration of a solution through titration, or understanding the forces that hold compounds together, the knowledge of these topics offers valuable insights into the world of chemistry.

So, embrace the principles of chemistry, explore its vast applications, and unravel the wonders of the molecular universe.



What are reactants and products in a chemical equation? Reactants are the substances that undergo a chemical change, while products are the new substances that are formed after the reaction.

2. What is the significance of titration in chemistry?

Titration is a technique used to determine the concentration of a solution by reacting it with a solution of known concentration until the reaction is complete. 3.

What is a net ionic equation? A net ionic equation only includes the species that actively participate in a reaction, excluding spectator ions that do not contribute to the reaction.

4. What is enthalpy?

Enthalpy is a thermodynamic property that describes the heat content of a system at constant pressure. 5.

How can we classify chemical reactions based on their characteristics? Chemical reactions can be classified based on factors such as completeness, redox reactions, precipitation reactions, reversibility, and displacement reactions.

6. Why is it important to understand the characteristics of reactions?

Understanding the characteristics of reactions allows us to predict their behavior, optimize chemical processes, and gain insights into the properties of matter. 7.

What are some common types of chemical reactions? Common types of chemical reactions include combustion, synthesis, decomposition, displacement, and precipitation reactions.

8. How can I balance a chemical equation?

To balance a chemical equation, adjust the coefficients in front of the reactants and products to make sure that the number of atoms of each element is the same on both sides of the equation.

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