Chem Explorers

Unlocking the Marvelous Properties of Ferric Oxide

Ferric Oxide Identification: Everything You Need to Know

Ferric oxide, also known as iron(III) oxide, is a chemical compound with the formula Fe2O3. It is a reddish-brown powder that has numerous industrial applications due to its unique chemical properties.

In this article, we will explore the chemical formula, IUPAC name, identifying characteristics, CAS number, and PubChem CID of ferric oxide.

Chemical Formula and Names

The chemical formula of ferric oxide is Fe2O3, which comprises two iron atoms and three oxygen atoms. Ferric oxide is derived from the Latin word ‘ferrum,’ which means iron, and ‘oxide’ refers to a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom.

Ferric oxide is also known as hematite, rust, red iron oxide, and ferric trioxide.

Identifying Characteristics

Ferric oxide has unique physical and chemical properties that make it useful in various industries. The CAS number of ferric oxide is 1309-37-1, and the PubChem CID is 516864.

It is a crystalline compound that is insoluble in water and organic solvents. Ferric oxide has a high melting and boiling point, making it stable at high temperatures.

It is also a good conductor of electricity and is paramagnetic, i.e., it is weakly attracted to a magnetic field.

Hydrated Ferric Oxide

Hydrated ferric oxide, also known as iron(III) oxide-hydroxide, is a gelatinous compound that forms when ferric oxide reacts with water. It is an orange-red to yellow-brown powder that contains varying amounts of water depending on the conditions under which it is prepared.

Hydrated ferric oxide has the chemical formula FeO(OH)xH2O, and its exact composition is determined by the thermal history and the source of the ferric oxide.

Forms and Examples

The most common forms of hydrated ferric oxide are red lepidocrocite and orange goethite. Red lepidocrocite, also known as hydrohematite, is a crystalline compound with the chemical formula FeOOH.

It has a reddish-brown color and is often used as a pigment in paints and coatings. Orange goethite, also known as iron(III) oxyhydroxide, is a mineral that has the chemical formula FeO(OH).

It is a common component of soil and is often used in the manufacturing of pigments and catalysts.

Conclusion

Ferric oxide and hydrated ferric oxide are essential compounds in various industries, including medical, pharmaceutical, and environmental. Ferric oxide is primarily used as a pigment, while hydrated ferric oxide is used in soil-improvement, wastewater treatment, and catalysts.

Understanding the chemical formula, IUPAC name, identifying characteristics, CAS number, and PubChem CID of these compounds will facilitate their usage and application. Additionally, being aware of the forms and examples of hydrated ferric oxide will help in identifying them in various industrial applications.

How is Ferric Oxide Prepared: Synthesis and Chemical Reactions

Ferric oxide is a versatile compound that is used widely in various industrial applications. It is primarily produced in the laboratory through a synthesis process or chemical reaction with other compounds.

This article will detail the processes involved in synthesizing ferric oxide and the chemical reactions it undergoes with other compounds.

Synthesis in Laboratory

Electrolysis is the most common method used in the laboratory to prepare ferric oxide. In this process, an iron anode is immersed in a sodium bicarbonate solution that serves as an electrolyte.

A direct current (DC) is then passed through the solution, causing the electrolytic conversion of the iron anode to ferric oxide. The process involves the oxidation of iron in the anode and the reduction of water molecules to produce oxygen and hydrogen ions.

Fe(s) Fe2+(aq) + 2e- (oxidation at anode)

2H2O(l) + 2e- H2(g) + 2OH-(aq) (reduction at cathode)

2Fe(s) + 3H2O(l) Fe2O3(s) + 3H2(g) (overall reaction)

Once the ferric oxide has formed, it is collected and washed to remove any impurities, and then dried. Another method used to prepare ferric oxide is through the dehydration of iron nitrate.

Iron nitrate is heated in a porcelain crucible until it decomposes to produce ferric oxide and nitrogen dioxide. Fe(NO3)3(s) Fe2O3(s) + 3NO2(g)

Chemical Reactions

Oxidation of Ferrous Sulfate to Ferric Sulfate

Ferrous disulfide, commonly known as iron pyrite, is composed of iron and sulfur. It is one of the primary sources of ferrous sulfate used in the manufacturing of ferric sulfate.

Ferrous sulfate is oxidized through the addition of an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, or chlorine, to produce ferric sulfate. FeSO4(aq) + HNO3(aq) Fe2(SO4)3(aq) + NO2(g) + H2O(l)

FeSO4(aq) + H2O2(aq) Fe2(SO4)3(aq) + 2H2O(l)

2FeSO4(aq) + Cl2(aq) Fe2(SO4)3(aq) + 2HCl(aq)

The ferrous sulfate is chemically oxidized to ferric sulfate by reducing the oxidation state of nitrogen, hydrogen, or chlorine, causing a redox reaction to occur.

Aluminum Replaces Iron from Ferric Oxide

Ferric oxide is a stable compound; however, it undergoes a redox reaction when reacted with aluminum. Aluminum replaces iron to form aluminum oxide and iron aluminide.

2Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) Al2O3(s) + 2Fe(s)

This reaction occurs because aluminum has a more negative reduction potential than iron; hence, it readily donates its electrons to iron, resulting in a displacement reaction. The reaction with aluminum is a beneficial process as it allows the creation of highly reactive surfaces of the metal oxide that are useful in various catalytic reactions.

Conclusion

Ferric oxide is a versatile compound with numerous industrial applications. It can be synthesized using electrolysis, dehydration, and other methods.

Chemical reactions with other compounds occur when it is oxidized to form ferric sulfate from ferrous sulfate, or it undergoes a redox reaction with aluminum. Understanding these processes will enable one to appreciate the unique properties and applications of ferric oxide in various industries.

Properties and Characteristics of Ferric Oxide: Molar Mass, Crystal Structure,

Uses, and

Health Hazards

Ferric oxide, also known as iron(III) oxide or hematite, is a chemical compound that is widely used in various industrial and biomedical applications. This article will detail the general and atomic properties of ferric oxide, its uses, and health hazards associated with its usage.

General Properties

The molar mass of ferric oxide is 159.69 g/mol, and it has a molecular weight of 55.85 g/mol. Ferric oxide’s physical properties include a reddish-brown color, a density of 5.24 g/cm3, and a melting point of 1538 C.

It is insoluble in water and organic solvents, and its solubility in acid increases with an increase in temperature. Ferric oxide is non-flammable, and it has no odor.

Atomic Properties

The crystal structure of ferric oxide is rhombohedral, and it belongs to the trigonal crystal system. Its crystal structure has a hexagonal unit cell, and its lattice points lie at the corners of the hexagon and in the center of the hexagon’s face.

Ferric oxide’s crystal structure has a permanent magnetic dipole moment and is weakly magnetic.

Uses

Ferric oxide has several industrial uses. Its magnetic properties make it useful in steel production, where it is used as a catalyst in the reduction of iron to produce the desired steel product.

Ferric oxide is also used in the production of jeweler’s rouge, a polishing compound used for jewelry making and metalwork. Ferric oxide is used as a filtration media due to its high surface area and porous nature.

It is used in water treatment plants to remove impurities such as dissolved metals and other contaminants. Additionally, the compound is a FDA-approved pigment used in cosmetics, food, and pharmaceuticals as a color additive.

In biomedical applications, ferric oxide is used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) due to its magnetic properties. It serves as a contrast agent that helps to visualize certain structures within the body using MRI technology.

Health Hazards

Prolonged exposure to fine particles of ferric oxide can result in respiratory problems, especially among occupational workers who are exposed to the compound during its production or usage. Pneumoconiosis, an inflammation of the lungs, can occur after prolonged exposure to ferric oxide dust.

Additionally, iron staining is a condition that may arise when ferric oxide is inhaled. The condition presents as dark lines or spots on the skin and can be caused by exposure to various forms of iron.

Conclusion

Ferric oxide, a reddish-brown powder, has unique and versatile properties that make it useful in various industries, such as steel production, polishing, water treatment, and biomedical applications. Its crystal structure is rhombohedral with hexagonal unit cells, and it has weak magnetic properties.

Ferric oxide can pose health hazards, particularly respiratory issues and iron staining, upon prolonged exposure. Understanding the properties, uses, and health hazards associated with ferric oxide is essential in its safe handling and usage in industrial and biomedical settings.

Ferric oxide, a versatile chemical compound, has several industrial and biomedical applications due to its unique properties and characteristics. Its crystal structure is rhombohedral, and it has been extensively used in steel production, polishing, water treatment, and magnetic resonance imaging.

However, it can pose health hazards, especially in industries with prolonged exposure to ferric oxide dust. Understanding the general and atomic properties of this compound is essential in its safe handling and usage in various applications.

FAQs:

1. What are the general properties of ferric oxide?

Ferric oxide has a reddish-brown color, a density of 5.24 g/cm, a melting point of 1538 C, and is insoluble in water and organic solvents. 2.

What are the uses of ferric oxide? Ferric oxide is used in steel production, polishing, water treatment, food additives, pharmaceuticals, color pigments, and biomedical applications.

3. Can prolonged exposure to ferric oxide pose health hazards?

Yes, prolonged exposure to ferric oxide dust can cause respiratory problems such as pneumoconiosis and iron staining. 4.

What is the crystal structure of ferric oxide? The crystal structure of ferric oxide is rhombohedral, and it belongs to the trigonal crystal system.

5. Why is ferric oxide used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)?

Ferric oxide is used as a contrast agent in MRI due to its magnetic properties, which help to visualize certain structures in the body.

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