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Unlocking the Unique Properties of Yttrium Isotopes: Applications in Medicine and Beyond

Yttrium: Anto Its Properties

Yttrium, a rare-earth element, was discovered by Swedish chemist Johan Gadolin in 1794. It is a transition metal with atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and an atomic weight of 88.91.

It belongs to the d block, group 3, period 5, and is classified as a paramagnetic metal due to its magnetic susceptibility at room temperature. In this article, we will explore various physical and chemical properties of yttrium that make it an interesting element in the periodic table.

Yttrium’s Chemical Properties

Yttrium is a rare-earth element that has 21 isotopes, among which only one is stable: Yt-89. The rest are radioactive isotopes that decay through alpha, beta, or gamma radiation.

Yt-90 is the most abundant isotope of yttrium and has a half-life of 64 hours. Yttrium exists in two allotropic forms, hexagonal close-packed (hcp) and body-centered cubic (bcc) structures.

Its atomic radius is 180 pm, and yttrium has an electronegativity of 1.22. Yttrium has a unique set of oxidation states, the most stable being +3.

Yttrium can also have +2 and +4 oxidation states. Yttrium has a low ionization energy of 600.7 kJ/mol and a second ionization energy of 1180 kJ/mol.

Its third ionization energy is 1980 kJ/mol. Yttrium has a CAS registry number of 7440-65-5 and a ChemSpider ID of 22414.

Yttrium Physical Properties

Yttrium has a silvery-metallic appearance and is ductile and malleable. It has a melting point of 1526C and a boiling point of 3337C.

At room temperature, pure yttrium is stable in dry air. However, it reacts with moisture to form insoluble oxide layers that protect the metal underneath.

Yttrium is soluble in dilute mineral acids. Yttrium is also known for its paramagnetic behavior.

Paramagnetism is a phenomenon that arises from the presence of unpaired electrons in the outermost or valence shell. Yttrium has one unpaired electron in the valence shell, hence its paramagnetic behavior.

Its magnetic susceptibility at room temperature is 3.02103 cm3/g. Yttrium is also known for its superconductivity at very low temperatures.

Allotropic Forms

Yttrium has two allotropic forms, hexagonal close-packed (hcp; ) and body-centered cubic (bcc; ) structures. The -form is stable at low temperatures below 866C, while the -form is stable above this temperature.

Both forms are stable at room temperature, with the -form being slightly more stable. Yttrium also forms alloys with other elements such as aluminum, magnesium, and copper.

Conclusion

Yttrium is an interesting and versatile element that has several unique properties that make it useful in various applications. Its chemical and physical properties make it an excellent material for use in superconductors, lasers, and electronic devices.

With its allotropic forms and low reactivity, yttrium presents several exciting avenues for scientific research and technological innovation. Yttrium’s properties continue to be investigated to find new and unique applications for this rare-earth element.

Yttrium Isotopes

Yttrium has 21 isotopes, ranging from Yt-76 to Yt-96. Among these isotopes, only one is stable, Yt-89, which accounts for 100% of natural yttrium abundance.

The rest of the isotopes are radioactive and decay through alpha, beta, or gamma radiation. Some of the isotopes, such as Yt-88 and Yt-92, are of particular interest due to their potential use in medical applications.

Yttrium Isotope Table

The following table lists the properties of yttrium isotopes, including atomic number, atomic mass, half-life, decay mode, daughter isotope, and excitation energy.

| Isotope | Atomic Mass | Half-Life | Decay Mode | Daughter Isotope | Excitation Energy |

|————|————|——————|————|——————|——————-|

| Yt-76 | 76.0345 | ~2.3 ms | – | Zr-76 | |

| Yt-77 | 77.032 | ~1.5 s | – | Zr-77 | |

| Yt-78 | 78.0297 | ~7.6 s | – | Zr-78 | |

| Yt-79 | 79.0283 | ~2.0 min | – | Zr-79 | |

| Yt-80 | 80.026 | ~2.7 min | – | Zr-80 | |

| Yt-81 | 81.02574 | ~25.7 min | – | Zr-81 | |

| Yt-82 | 82.02487 | ~1.2 h | – | Zr-82 | |

| Yt-83 | 83.02447 | ~23.1 h | – | Zr-83 | |

| Yt-84 | 84.02362 | ~38.1 h | – | Zr-84 | |

| Yt-85 | 85.02331 | ~2.7 min | – | Zr-85 | |

| Yt-86 | 86.02247 | ~14.7 h | – | Zr-86 | |

| Yt-87 | 87.02245 | 79.8 h | – | Zr-87 | |

| Yt-88 | 88.02237 | 106.6 d | – | Zr-88 | 123.8 keV |

| Yt-89 | 88.90585 | Stable | – | – | 0 |

| Yt-90 | 89.90773 | 64.0 h | -, EC | Zr-90 | 394.4 keV (-), |

| | | | | | 1816 keV (EC) |

| Yt-91 | 90.9073 | 58.5 min | – | Zr-91 | |

| Yt-92 | 91.90972 | 3.5106 years | -, | Zr-92, Sr-88 | 726.9 keV (-) |

| | | | | | 4719.9 keV () |

| Yt-93 | 92.909582 | 10.18 days | – | Zr-93 | |

| Yt-94 | 93.911595 | ~33.7 h | – | Zr-94 | 311.8 keV |

| Yt-95 | 94.91282 | ~3.01 months | – | Zr-95 | |

| Yt-96 | 95.91589 | ~13.15 hours | -, | Zr-96, Sr-92 | 513.9 keV (-) |

| | | | | | 5175.1 keV () |

Yttrium Isotope Properties

The radioactive isotopes of yttrium have varying half-lives, decay modes, and daughter isotopes. Some of the isotopes, such as Yt-92, have a long half-life and undergo both beta and alpha decay.

Yt-92 is also unstable and decays to both Zr-92 and Sr-88. Meanwhile, Yt-88 has a relatively short half-life of 106.6 days and undergoes beta decay to Zr-88.

The properties of yttrium isotopes have found applications in various fields, such as medical imaging and therapy. Yt-90 is used as a source of beta radiation in the treatment of certain cancers, especially those that affect bone, as it undergoes electron capture to form Zr-90 and emits beta particles that target bone tissue.

The beta particles emitted by Yt-90 have a high energy of 2.28 MeV, allowing them to penetrate deep into the bones to target cancerous cells.

Summary

To summarize, yttrium is a rare-earth metal with unique chemical and physical properties that make it a versatile element in various fields. It has 21 isotopes, with Yt-89 being the only stable isotope and the rest being radioactive isotopes that decay through alpha, beta, or gamma radiation.

The properties of yttrium isotopes have found applications in medical imaging and therapy, highlighting the importance of understanding the properties of yttrium isotopes. Yttrium is a rare-earth metal with interesting physical and chemical properties.

It has 21 isotopes, with Yt-89 being the only stable isotope. The rest of the isotopes are radioactive and have found important applications in various fields, such as medical imaging and therapy.

Yttrium’s unique properties and isotopes continue to be studied for potential new applications. FAQs: What are the properties of yttrium?

Yttrium has unique chemical and physical properties, including paramagnetism, allotropic forms, and low reactivity. What are yttrium isotopes?

Yttrium has 21 isotopes, with Yt-89 being the only stable isotope. The rest are radioactive isotopes that decay through alpha, beta, or gamma radiation.

What are the applications of yttrium isotopes? Yttrium isotopes have found applications in medical imaging and therapy, such as in the treatment of certain cancers through electron capture.

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