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Unlocking the Versatility of Strontium Oxide: Properties and Reactions

Strontium Oxide: Properties, Formation, and Chemical Reactions

Strontium oxide (SrO) is a chemical compound comprising one strontium atom and one oxygen atom. It is an inorganic compound with various applications in diverse fields such as pigments, ceramics, semiconductors, and glass production.

This article aims to provide detailed and comprehensive information about strontium oxide, its properties, formation, chemical reactions, and chemical classification.

Formation and Allotropic Forms

Strontium oxide is formed through the reaction of oxygen with strontium metal. The reaction proceeds by heating the strontium metal in the presence of oxygen as follows:

2Sr + O2 2SrO

Strontium oxide exists in several allotropic forms that have different properties and arrangements of atoms.

The most stable form at room temperature is the cubic or rock salt structure, which is a close-packed arrangement of oxide ions and strontium cations.

Properties (Physical and Chemical)

Strontium oxide shares some of its physical and chemical properties with its neighboring elements, calcium, and barium. It is a white, slightly hygroscopic, and insoluble powder.

Strontium oxide is a basic oxide that reacts with water to form a strongly alkaline solution. It is also stable at high temperatures and under normal atmospheric conditions.

In terms of its chemical properties, strontium oxide can be readily dissolved in strong acids, producing strontium salts, or molten oxides, which can react with a variety of compounds to form other strontium compounds. Molar Mass, Viscosity, and Density

The molar mass of strontium oxide is 103.62 g/mol.

It has a low viscosity and a molar density of 4.70 g/cm. The low viscosity of strontium oxide makes it an ideal candidate for several industrial applications, including the production of LCD screens.

Reactions with Acids, Bases, Oxides, and Metals

Due to its basic nature, strontium oxide can react with acids, bases, oxides, and metals. It reacts with acids such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) to form strontium salts and water.

For instance, strontium oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid to form strontium chloride and water as follows:

SrO + 2HCl SrCl2 + H2O

Regarding its reaction with bases, strontium oxide forms strong alkaline solutions when mixed with water, dissolving to yield strontium hydroxide (Sr(OH)2). Regarding its reaction with oxides, strontium oxide can react with carbon dioxide (CO2) to form strontium carbonate (SrCO3) as follows:

SrO + CO2 SrCO3

Finally, strontium oxide can react with several metals such as copper (Cu) to produce strontium copper oxide (Sr2CuO2) or aluminum (Al) to form Strontium aluminum oxide (SrAl2O4).

Strontium Oxide IUPAC Name, Formula, and Chemical Classification

The IUPAC name for strontium oxide is strontium(II) oxide. The chemical formula is SrO.

The CAS number for strontium oxide is 1314-11-0, while the ChemSpider ID is 139453. Strontium oxide belongs to the alkaline earth metals group II.

Conclusion

In summary, strontium oxide is an inorganic compound with various applications in different fields. It can be formed by the reaction of oxygen with strontium metal and exists in several allotropic forms.

Strontium oxide is a basic oxide that reacts with water to form strong alkaline solutions and is stable at high temperatures and normal atmospheric conditions. It can react with acids, bases, oxides, and metals and belongs to group II of the periodic table of elements.

Strontium Oxide Properties

Strontium oxide is an inorganic compound with various properties that make it useful in numerous fields, including ceramics, glass, and electronics. In this section, we will explore in detail the physical and chemical properties of strontium oxide.

Color, Melting Point, Boiling Point, and State at Room Temperature

Strontium oxide is a white-colored powder at room temperature. It has a melting point of 2,377 C and a boiling point of 3,317 C, making it a high-temperature compound.

Strontium oxide exists in a solid state at room temperature, and it is insoluble in water. This compound is also hygroscopic, which means it can absorb water from the atmosphere.

Ionic Bond and Electronic Configuration

Strontium oxide forms an ionic bond between the strontium cation and oxygen anion. Strontium has two valence electrons in its outer shell, while oxygen requires two electrons to complete its valence shell.

The resultant compound, SrO, can achieve stability by losing two electrons from the strontium atom and gaining them on the oxygen atom. Hence, strontium oxide has an electronic configuration of [Kr]4d^105s^2, similar to that of its neighboring elements calcium and barium.

Acidity/Alkalinity, Odor, and Magnetism

Strontium oxide is a basic or alkaline oxide. It is also an odorless compound and does not have any noticeable smell.

As a solid, strontium oxide does not exhibit any polarity. However, when dissolved in water, it dissociates into Sr and O ions, which makes it a polar compound.

Strontium oxide is diamagnetic due to the absence of unpaired electrons in its outermost shell. Strontium Oxide Hydrates, Crystal Structure, Polarity, and Conductivity

Hydrates

Strontium oxide can form hydrates, which are compounds containing water molecules within their structures. The more common hydrates of strontium oxide are the monohydrate and octahydrate.

The molecular formula for strontium oxide monohydrate is SrOHO, while that for strontium oxide octahydrate is SrO8HO. The monohydrate of strontium oxide is a white powder that easily dissolves in water.

Crystal Structure, Polarity, and Conductivity

Strontium oxide exhibits a crystalline structure, which applies to its hydrates. The crystal structure of this compound is face-centered cubic (FCC) with the strontium cations located at each cube corner.

The oxide anions occupy the centers of each cube face, making it a FCC structure. As mentioned earlier, strontium oxide is a polar compound in the dissolved state, and the positive (Sr) and negative (O) ions are separated in aqueous solutions.

The resulting polar nature of strontium oxide allows it to conduct electricity. The conductivity of strontium oxide is high in comparison to other ceramic materials due to its crystal structure and polarity in the aqueous state.

This compound has an ionic conductivity similar to that of its neighboring elements in the periodic table. The conductivity of strontium oxide also depends on its temperature, which increases with an increase in temperature.

Conclusion

Strontium oxide is an important compound with various physical and chemical properties. It forms an ionic bond between strontium and oxygen atoms, and it is an odorless, white powder.

Strontium oxide is an alkaline oxide and dissociates into Sr and O ions in aqueous solutions, allowing it to exhibit polarity and conduct electricity.

Hydrates of strontium oxide such as the monohydrate and octahydrate are also possible.

The crystal structure of strontium oxide is FCC, and this compound is diamagnetic, with a polar behavior when it is dissolved in water. Overall, strontium oxide finds numerous applications in a wide range of fields due to its unique properties.

Strontium Oxide Reactions

Strontium oxide is an inorganic compound that can react with various other materials, including acids, bases, oxides, and metals. This section will elaborate on the reactions of strontium oxide with these substances.

Reaction with Acid

Strontium oxide reacts with hydrohalic acid, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) or hydrobromic acid (HBr), forming strontium halide and water. For example, when strontium oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid, it produces strontium chloride (SrCl2) and water (H2O) as a result:

SrO + 2HCl SrCl2 + H2O

Other acids, such as sulfuric acid (H2SO4), can also react with strontium oxide to form strontium sulfate (SrSO4) and water:

SrO + H2SO4 SrSO4 + H2O

Reaction with Base

When strontium oxide reacts with metallic oxides such as sodium oxide (Na2O), it forms strontium silicate (SrSiO3) and sodium oxide. Strontium oxide can also react with hydroxides such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to form strontium hydroxide (Sr(OH)2) and water as shown in the following equation:

SrO + 2NaOH Sr(OH)2 + Na2O

However, strontium oxide can be non-reactive when combined with certain bases such as beryllium hydroxide (Be(OH)2) due to the low solubility of the compound.

Reaction with Oxide

When strontium oxide reacts with carbon dioxide (CO2), it forms strontium carbonate (SrCO3) and releases energy. The reaction proceeds as follows:

SrO + CO2 SrCO3

Also, strontium oxide can be used to form some strontium salts, such as strontium nitrate (Sr(NO3)2), by reacting with the corresponding acid in a net ionic equation that eliminates the spectator ions.

Reaction with Metal

Strontium oxide can react with some metals such as aluminum to produce strontium aluminum oxide (SrAl2O4). The reaction is represented as follows:

3SrO + 2Al SrAl2O4

The powder that results is used in the production of aluminum and magnesium alloys.

Conclusion

In conclusion, strontium oxide is a versatile inorganic compound that can react with several other substances, including acids, bases, oxides, and metals. These reactions yield several products, including halides, hydroxides, silicates, and carbonates.

The resulting products can be used for many different purposes, from the formation of strontium salts for industrial or research purposes to the creation of new materials for engineering and construction projects. Strontium oxide is an inorganic compound with properties that are highly useful in many fields, from electronics to glass making.

It forms an ionic bond with oxygen, has an electronic configuration similar to that of calcium and barium, is an alkaline oxide, is insoluble in water, and becomes polar when dissolved. Strontium oxide can react with acids, halides, and sulfuric acid, with bases to form hydroxides and while also being non-reactive in certain combinations, with oxides resulting in the formation of carbonates, and with metals to achieve different outcomes.

Strontium oxide has many applications, and its unique properties have made it essential in manufacturing and scientific research.

FAQs:

1.

What is strontium oxide? Strontium oxide is a white, slightly hygroscopic, and insoluble powder composed of one strontium atom and one oxygen atom.

2. What is strontium oxide used for?

Strontium oxide is used in pigments, ceramics, semiconductors, and glass production, with applications also in the medical field for bone imaging. 3.

How does strontium oxide react with acids? Strontium oxide reacts with hydrohalic acids and sulfuric acid, forming strontium halide, strontium sulfate, and water.

4. How does strontium oxide react with bases?

Strontium oxide reacts with metallic oxides to form strontium silicate with sodium oxide, or hydroxides to form strontium hydroxide and water. 5.

How does strontium oxide react with oxides? Strontium oxide reacts with carbon dioxide to form strontium carbonate, which can then be used in various industrial applications.

6. Can strontium oxide be non-reactive with certain substances?

Yes, strontium oxide can be non-reactive when combined with certain bases like beryllium hydroxide, due to the low solubility of the compound. 7.

What is the crystal structure of strontium oxide? Strontium oxide has a face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure, with the strontium cations located at each cube corner and the oxide anions at the center of each cube face.

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