Chem Explorers

Valence Electron Counting and Preparation of Chloric Acid: Understanding HClO3 and Its Industrial Uses

Valence Electron Counting for HCl

O3

Valence electrons are the electrons found in the outermost shell of an atom. They determine an atom’s reactivity and ability to bond with other atoms.

To understand the Lewis structure of HCl

O3, we need to count the total number of valence electrons. H is in group 1 of the periodic table, so it has 1 valence electron.

Cl is in group 7, which means it has 7 valence electrons.

O is in group 6 and has 6 valence electrons. Since there are three

O atoms in HCl

O3, we need to multiply 6 by 3, which gives us 18 valence electrons. The total number of valence electrons in HCl

O3 is:

1 (H) + 7 (Cl) + 18 (3x

O) = 26

Central Atom Selection and Single Bond Formation

The central atom in a molecule is usually the least electronegative atom. In HCl

O3, Cl is the most electronegative atom, so it will not be the central atom. H has only one valence electron, so it cannot form more than one bond.

This leaves

O as the central atom. The Lewis structure of HCl

O3 looks like this:

O

|| | |

Cl

O

O

|
H

Each

O atom forms a single bond with the central

O atom. Cl forms a single bond with the central

O atom as well. The H atom forms a bond with one of the terminal

O atoms.

Lone Pair Electron Placement and Formal Charge Calculation

Formal charge refers to the hypothetical charge of an atom in a molecule if electrons were shared equally between the atoms. It is a useful tool for determining the stability of a molecule.

The formal charge of an atom is calculated using the following formula:

FC = V – L – B/2

where

V = number of valence electrons in the neutral atom

L = number of lone pair electrons

B = number of shared electrons (bonds)

In the Lewis structure of HCl

O3, the central

O atom has four valence electrons and is involved in three bonds. Therefore, its formal charge is:

FC = 4 – 0 – 6/2 = 1

Both terminal

O atoms have six valence electrons and are involved in one bond. Therefore, their formal charge is:

FC = 6 – 2 – 2/2 = 1

The Cl atom has seven valence electrons and is involved in one bond.

Therefore, its formal charge is:

FC = 7 – 0 – 2/2 = 3

Conversion of Lone Pair to Covalent Bond for Stability

To determine the stability of a molecule, we need to evaluate its formal charges. The more negative the formal charge on a specific atom, the more unstable it is.

Conversely, the more positive the formal charge, the more stable it is. In the Lewis structure of HCl

O3, all the atoms have a formal charge of 1, except Cl which has a formal charge of 3. To improve the stability of HCl

O3, we can convert a lone pair of electrons on one of the terminal

O atoms into a covalent bond with the central

O atom:

O

|| | ||

Cl

O–

O

|
H

By converting the lone pair of electrons into a covalent bond, the central

O atom now has a formal charge of 0, and the terminal

O atoms have a formal charge of -1. The Cl atom still has a formal charge of 3, but the overall stability of HCl

O3 has been improved. Molecular Geometry of HCl

O3

The molecular geometry of a compound determines its physical properties, such as melting and boiling points. To determine the molecular geometry of HCl

O3, we need to use the AXE model.

Determination of Geometry based on Electron Density

The first step is to determine the electron density around the central

O atom. Each bond between the central

O atom and the terminal

O atoms counts as one electron group, and the lone pair on one of the terminal

O atoms counts as another electron group. Therefore, the electron geometry around the central

O atom is tetrahedral.

Application of AXE Model

The AXE model is used to determine the molecular geometry of a compound based on the number of electron groups around the central atom. The A represents the central atom, X represents the number of attached atoms, and E represents the number of lone pairs of electrons.

In HCl

O3, the central

O atom has four electron groups: three X atoms and one E pair. This gives it an AX3E molecular geometry, which is also known as a trigonal pyramidal shape.

In summary, the Lewis structure of HCl

O3 can be determined using valence electron counting, central atom selection, single bond formation, lone pair electron placement, formal charge calculation, and conversion of lone pair to covalent bond for stability. The molecular geometry of HCl

O3 can be determined using the AXE model. Understanding these concepts is crucial for predicting the chemical behavior and reactivity of HCl

O3, as well as other compounds with similar structures. 3) Acid/Base Properties and Conjugate Base

Acids are substances that donate hydrogen ions (H+) in aqueous solutions.

The strength of an acid is determined by its ability to donate H+ ions. Strong acids are those that can easily donate H+ ions, while weak acids only donate a small fraction of H+ ions.

Strong acids are typically characterized by their ability to dissociate completely in water. They readily donate their H+ ion, leaving behind few undissociated molecules in the aqueous solution.

Examples of strong acids include hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2S

O4), and nitric acid (HN

O3).

Conjugate base is the product that results from the loss of a H+ ion from an acid.

When an acid donates a proton, the remaining part of the molecule is known as the conjugate base. The stronger the acid, the weaker its conjugate base.

For example, HCl is a strong acid, and its conjugate base, Cl-, is a weak base. The process of forming a conjugate base involves the loss of a proton from an acid.

When an acid donates a proton, the negative charge left behind forms a conjugate base. This process can be represented as follows:

H-A H+ + A-

In this reaction, H-A is the acid, and A- is the conjugate base.

4) Properties and Preparation of Chloric Acid

Chloric acid is a strong oxidizing agent with the formula HCl

O3. It is a colorless liquid with a molar mass of 84.45 g/mol.

Chloric acid is a strong acid and readily donates a proton to form its conjugate base, chlorate ion (Cl

O3-).

Chloric acid can be prepared by heating hypochlorous acid (HCl

O) under controlled conditions:

3HCl

O HCl

O3 + 2H2

O

The sulfuric acid reaction can also be used to prepare chloric acid:

NaCl

O3 + H2S

O4 HCl

O3 + NaHS

O4

In this reaction, sodium chlorate (NaCl

O3) is reacted with sulfuric acid (H2S

O4) to form chloric acid and sodium bisulfate (NaHS

O4). Chloric acid is a highly reactive and unstable acid that is rarely encountered in its pure form.

It reacts violently when in contact with organic materials, metals, and reducing agents. The pure acid should be handled with extreme care to avoid serious injury or damage.

Chloric acid has a variety of industrial uses, including as a bleaching and oxidizing agent, as well as a disinfectant. It is also commonly used in the production of herbicides and insecticides.

In summary, chloric acid is a strong oxidizing agent commonly used in a variety of industrial applications. It is a colorless liquid that can be prepared by heating hypochlorous acid or through the sulfuric acid reaction.

Chloric acid is highly reactive and unstable and should be handled with extreme care. The acid readily donates a proton to form its conjugate base, chlorate ion.

Understanding the properties and preparation methods of chloric acid is important for those working with industrial chemicals and for further research into the chemical properties of this compound. In summary, this article explored the Lewis structure and molecular geometry of HCl

O3 while emphasizing the importance of valence electrons, central atom selection, and formal charge calculation. It also discussed the properties and preparation methods of chloric acid, highlighting its usefulness as a strong oxidizing agent.

As industrial and scientific fields rely heavily on chemical compounds, understanding the properties, and reactions of different compounds is vital for safe handling and innovation.

FAQs:

Q: What is the definition of an acid?

A: Acids are substances that donate H+ ions in aqueous solutions. Q: What is the difference between strong and weak acids?

A: Strong acids can easily donate H+ ions and dissociate completely in water, while weak acids only donate a small fraction of H+ ions. Q: What is a conjugate base?

A: A conjugate base is formed when an acid donates a proton, resulting in the loss of a H+ ion and the remaining part of the molecule. Q: How is chloric acid prepared?

A: Chloric acid can be prepared by heating hypochlorous acid or through the sulfuric acid reaction. Q: What are the properties of chloric acid?

A: Chloric acid is a strong oxidizing agent, highly reactive and unstable, and rarely encountered in its pure form. It is useful in various industrial applications like bleaching and disinfectant.

Popular Posts